Breast cancer as a multifaceted disease. Literature review
Breast cancer has been the leading cause of morbidity among women for many years. In 2020, it accounted for nearly 24% of all registered cancers in the female Polish population. Key risk factors for breast cancer include female gender, age, genetic factors, and factors related to the levels of sex hormones. However, there is a need for more precise research taking into account the impact of certain chemical substances, especially medications. A primary symptom of breast cancer is a lump in the breast; therefore, self-examination and preventive screenings such as mammography and breast ultrasound are crucial. Breast cancer cells exhibit distinctive molecular markers on their surface, resulting in the categorization of the disease into biological subtypes, that continue to evolve with advancing knowledge. In the realm of surgical treatment, efforts persist to limit axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) and prevent the occurrence and treatment of lymphedema. In the field of surgical treatment, there is still a pursuit to limit the performance of axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) and prevent the occurrence of lymphedema, which could be treated by utilizing microsurgical procedures e.g. lymphovenous anastomosis (LVA). Treatment for breast cancer includes, in addition to standard chemotherapy and hormone therapy, the use of immunotherapy. The latest drugs are immunconjugates, which are a combination of a monoclonal antibody with a cytostatic agent. . Promising expectations are linked to treatments focused on identified genetic mutations in cancer cells. Ongoing studies contribute to the discovery of drug targets, enabling the introduction of novel molecularly targeted therapies. These approaches facilitate achieving longer disease stabilization even in patients with metastases. Radiation therapy remains a crucial method for treating breast cancer. Thanks to precise planning, based on increasingly advanced imaging methods and the application of deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) techniques, adverse effects of radiation are limited.
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