Prolactinoma - the most common pituitary tumor. A literature review
The most common neoplastic change in the pituitary gland is a prolactinoma. Its presence leads to an increase in prolactin levels in the body, known as hyperprolactinemia. This tumor is most frequently diagnosed in young women due to menstrual disorders and fertility issues it causes, although hyperprolactinemia affects both genders. Diagnosis is not complicated, but certain issues, such as the "hook effect" and macroprolactinemia, can pose challenges to establishing an accurate diagnosis. The primary treatment method involves the use of dopamine agonists, most commonly cabergoline. However, cases of resistance to this method of normalizing prolactin levels, despite using the highest, well-tolerated patient doses, do occur. Other treatment techniques include surgical methods and radiotherapy, but they may also prove ineffective at times. A literature review indicates a continuous increase in researchers' interest in new treatment methods for cases resistant to standard therapeutic approaches or highly invasive pituitary tumors. An example of this is the use of temozolomide in treatment. Research is also underway on other groups of drugs, but there is still insufficient data about them to incorporate them into standard procedures. Therefore, it is crucial to deepen knowledge in this area and conduct further observations.
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